Fear of dental treatment is one of the reasons why patients avoid visiting dental practice. Although most of the treatments performed with the help of local anaesthesia relieve patients from pain, the anxiety in them is hard to combat. Sedation dentistry is a method of using special agents to ease patients during dental treatment. From moderate to deep sedation there are various levels which help dentists relieve patients from anxiety so that they can concentrate on treatment. Over-the-counter sedatives and nitrous oxide are commonly used by dentists. Other higher levels of sedation may require training, license and specialized equipment for monitoring patients. Irrespective of the type of sedation the patient should be constantly monitored during the treatment and for few hours after the treatment in order to ensure that the process is safe.
Sinus graft is a surgery performed to add bone to help replace a missing back tooth in the upper jaw. Tooth loss may lead to shrinkage of jaw bone in the maxillary sinus floor. A dental implant surgery requires enough bone volume to hold the implant. Sinus graft is a complex surgery where a lateral opening is made and the soft skin of the maxillary sinus is separated from the bone in order to build the bone using substitute material. The process requires exceptional skills from the dentist.
Extraction of a tooth causes resorption of the supporting bone. Bone resorption causes a 40-60% decrease in its width during the first three years following extraction. Bone resorption occurs at the expense of the outer plate of bone reducing the width of bone. Then overtime the height of bone is reduced. This becomes critical for anterior implants where ideal aesthetics, phonetics and function is desired. In the upper jaw following extraction the sinus floor begins to expand further decreasing the available bone to place implants in the posterior maxilla. In the lower jaw the mandibular nerve runs in the bone limiting the length of the implant placed.
Bone Grafting can be used as a socket preservation procedure when it is placed following extraction of a tooth or to augment an atrophied or reabsorbed site.Bone Grafting Procedures Ridge-augmentation
In severe cases of ridge resorption bone graft is placed to increase the ridge height and or width.Sinus Lift and Graft Procedure
This procedure involves elevating the sinus membrane and placing the bone graft onto the sinus floor, allowing implants to be placed in the back part of the upper jaw.Nerve - repositioning
The mandibular nerve may need to be moved in order to make room for placement of dental implants in the lower jaw.
These procedures may be performed separately or together, depending upon the individual's condition. There are several areas of the body which are suitable for attaining bone grafts. In the maxillofacial region, bone grafts can be taken from inside the mouth, in the area of the chin or third molar region or in the upper jaw behind the last tooth. In more extensive situations, a greater quantity of bone can be attained from the hip or the outer aspect of the tibia at the knee.
Several bone augmentation materials are available to stimulate and encourage bone growth in areas where it is lost as a result of pathological or physiological processes.
Bone grafting materials can be derived from various sources
Bone Grafting will help to place larger diameter implants in ideal locations that are stable and serviceable for a long time. It also helps to establish normal volume and dimensions of bone for ideal aesthetics, lip support and phonetics.
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